• Lower-Limb Amputation: An increased risk of lower-limb amputations associated with INVOKANA® use versus placebo was observed in CANVAS (5.9 vs 2.8 events per 1000 patient-years) and CANVAS-R (7.5 vs 4.2 events per 1000 patient-years), two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or were at risk for cardiovascular disease. The risk of lower-limb amputations was observed at both the 100-mg and 300-mg once-daily dosage regimens.
Amputations of the toe and midfoot (99 out of 140 patients with amputations receiving INVOKANA® in the two trials) were the most frequent; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, were also observed (41 out of 140 patients with amputations receiving INVOKANA® in the two trials). Some patients had multiple amputations, some involving both lower limbs.
Lower-limb infections, gangrene, and diabetic foot ulcers were the most common precipitating medical events leading to the need for an amputation. The risk of amputation was highest in patients with a baseline history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, and neuropathy.
Before initiating, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to the need for amputations, such as a history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and diabetic foot ulcers. Counsel patients about the importance of routine preventative foot care. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infection (including osteomyelitis), new pain or tenderness, sores, or ulcers involving the lower limbs, and discontinue if these complications occur.
• Hypotension: INVOKANA® causes intravascular volume contraction. Symptomatic hypotension can occur after initiating INVOKANA®, particularly in the elderly, and in patients with impaired renal function, low systolic blood pressure, or on diuretics or medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Before initiating INVOKANA®, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating.
• Ketoacidosis: Ketoacidosis, a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization, has been identified in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including INVOKANA®. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking INVOKANA®. Before initiating INVOKANA®, consider factors in patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis. For patients who undergo scheduled surgery, consider temporarily discontinuing INVOKANA® for at least 3 days prior to surgery. Monitor for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinue in other clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis. Ensure risk factors for ketoacidosis are resolved prior to restarting therapy. Educate patients on the signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis and instruct patients to discontinue INVOKANA® and seek medical attention immediately if signs and symptoms occur.
• Acute Kidney Injury: INVOKANA® causes intravascular volume contraction and can cause acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury, requiring hospitalization and dialysis, has been reported. Initiation of INVOKANA® may increase serum creatinine and decrease eGFR. Before initiation, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury. Consider temporarily discontinuing INVOKANA® in any setting of reduced oral intake or fluid losses; monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. If it occurs, promptly discontinue and treat. Evaluate renal function prior to initiation and monitor periodically thereafter.
• Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis: Serious urinary tract infections, including urosepsis and pyelonephritis, requiring hospitalization have been reported in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including INVOKANA®. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increases this risk. Evaluate for signs and symptoms and treat promptly.
• Hypoglycemia With Concomitant Use With Insulin and Insulin Secretagogues: INVOKANA® can increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue. A lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required.
• Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s Gangrene): Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, a rare but serious and life-threatening necrotizing infection requiring urgent surgical intervention, has been identified in postmarketing surveillance in female and male patients with diabetes mellitus receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including INVOKANA®. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death. If suspected, start treatment immediately with broad-spectrum antibiotics and, if necessary, surgical debridement. Discontinue INVOKANA®.
• Genital Mycotic Infections: INVOKANA® increases risk of genital mycotic infections, especially in uncircumcised males or patients with prior infections. Monitor and treat appropriately.
• Hypersensitivity Reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis, were reported with INVOKANA®; these reactions generally occurred within hours to days after initiation. If reactions occur, discontinue INVOKANA®, treat, and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.
• Bone Fracture: Increased risk of bone fracture, occurring as early as 12 weeks after treatment initiation, was observed in patients using INVOKANA®. Prior to initiation, consider factors that contribute to fracture risk.